NOTE: These are just a few of the many scientific studies
on Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae which is also known as Blue Green
Algae and Chlorophyll. These studies DO NOT reflect the
results of any one product, or product line(s) shown to contain
Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae, Blue Green Algae and Chlorophyll.
"Studies performed in
healthy humans suggest that AFA-algae increase the level of
circulating natural killer cells. In vitro studies also suggest
that AFA-algae has antiviral and antimutagenic activity."
University of New Mexico
- placebo controlled study. After eating Aphanizomenon flos-aquae
for a period of one month, intestinal function can improve.
Another placebo-contolled study suggests that eating Aphanizomenon
flos-aquae can stimulate specific areas of the brain for increased
Consumption of Aphanizomenon
flos-aquae Has Rapid Effects on the Circulation and Function
of Immune Cells in Humans
A novel approach to nutritional mobilization of the immune system
Gitte S. Jensen,1 Donald 1. Ginsberg,1 Patricia Huerta,1 Monica
Citton,1 and Christian Drapeau 2,3 1Department of Surgery, McGill
University, Montreal Quebec 2Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, or 3Current
Address: Desert Lake Technologies, Klamath Falls, OR
Objective: To examine the short-term effects of consumption
of a moderate amount (1.5 grams) of the blue green algae Aphanizomenon
flos-aquae (AFA), on the immune system.
Using a crossover placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded
design, 21 volunteers were studied, including 5 long-term AFA
Results: Consumption of a moderate
amount (1.5 grams) of the blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae
results in rapid changes in immune cell trafficking. Two hours
after AFA consumption, a generalized mobilization of lymphocytes
and monocytes, but not polymorph nucleated cells was observed.
This included increases in CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell subsets
and CD19+ B cells. In addition, the relative proportions and
absolute numbers of natural killer (NK) cells were reduced after
AFA consumption. No changes were observed in the relative proportions
of n6ve versus memory T cells, neither in the CD4 or the CD8
fractions. A mild, but significant reduction in phagocytic activity
was observed for polymorph nucleated cells. When freshly purified
lymphocytes were exposed to AFA extract in vitro, direct activation
was not induced, as evaluated by tyrosine phosphorylation and
Discussion: The changes
in immune cell trafficking displayed high degree of cell specificity.
Long-term consumers responded stronger, with respect to altered
immune cell trafficking. In vitro, AFA did not induce a direct
activation of lymphocytes. These data support a signaling pathway
from gut-to-CNS-to-lymphoid tissue. The signals from CNS may
be crucial for the rapid changes in the general distribution
and specific recruitment we observed. Moderate anti-inflammatory
modulation may account for the modification of phagocytic activity.
Conclusion: Consumption of AFA leads to rapid changes
in immune cell trafficking, but not direct activation of lymphocytes.
Thus, AFA increases the immune surveillance without directly
stimulating the immune system.
JANA, vol. 2, No. 3, 2000, pp. 50-58
Royal Victoria Hospital
Recently the first stage of an extensive research project carried
out at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Canada produced
some remarkable results. The project studies the effect of Aphanizomenon
flos-aquae on the immune and endocrine systems, as well as on
general blood physiology. It was discovered that eating
AFA had a profound and unique effect on Natural Killer (NK)
cells. The results were recently published under the title:
Effects of the Blue Green Algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on
Human Natural Killer Cells. It appears in Chapter 3.1 of the
IBC Library Series, Volume 1911, Phytoceuticals: Examining the
health benefit and pharmaceutical properties of natural antioxidants
NK cells have the ability to search for and recognize cells
that are cancerous or have been infected by a virus, and kill
them. The team of research scientists at the Royal Victoria
Hospital, led by Dr. Gitte S. Jensen, discovered that eating
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae triggers the movement of 40% of the
circulating NK cells from the blood to the tissues where their
main function is to perform immune surveillance and eliminate
cancerous and virally-infected cells. Further research may
prove that eating a small amount of AFA every day could assist
in the prevention of cancer and viral infections. No other substance
is known to trigger such a movement of NK cells in the body.
Effect of dietary
chlorophyll derivatives on mutagenesis and tumor cell growth
Chernomorsky S, Segelman A, Poretz RD. (1999). Teratog Carcinog
Much attention in recent years has been given to the antigenotoxicity
of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll, however, is known to be converted
into pheophytin, pyropheophytin, and pheophorbide in processed
vegetable food and following ingestion by humans.
Studies were conducted on the antimutagenic and tumoricidal
potencies of these compounds. All the chlorophyll derivatives
tested exhibit identical antimutagenic effect towards 3-methylcholanthrene
(3-MC), suggesting that the porphyrin nucleus may complex directly
with the mutagen.
It does not exclude, however, another mechanism of activity
involving inactivation the enzymatic transformation of 3-MC.
In contrast, the action of N'-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
depends upon structural differences between the chlorophyll
derivatives. It is significantly lower when the phytol-containing
pheophytin and pyropheophytin are tested as to that of the phytol-lacking
The higher concentrations of the chlorophyll derivatives were
required to reduce the mutagenicity of MNNG than needed for
3-MC. The cytotoxicity of chlorophyll derivatives against tumor
cells, also, was evaluated. The cellular uptake and inhibition
of myeloma cell multiplicity were found to be greater for pheophorbide
than for pheophytin. Calculated on the amount of cell associated
chlorophyll derivative, however, pheophytin was more cytostatic/cytotoxic
The results presented in this
report indicate that food sources that yield chlorophyll derivatives
may play a significant role in cancer prevention.
of reverse transcriptase activity by extracts of cultured blue-green
Lau AF, Siedlecki J, Anleitner J, Patterson GM, Caplan FR, Moore
Cancer Research Center, University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu
Lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts of over 900 strains of cultured
blue-green algae (cyanophyta) were examined in vitro for their
ability to inhibit the reverse transcriptases (RT) of avian
myeloblastosis virus (AMV) and human immunodeficiency virus,
type 1 (HIV-1). Eighteen (2.0%) aqueous extracts showed activity
against AMV and HIV RTs. The maximal level of RT inhibition
achieved by some of the active extracts was equivalent to that
measured for 3'-azido-2',3'-di-deoxythymidine (AZT) at 668 ng/ml.
Examination of partially purified fractions prepared by C18
column chromatography demonstrated that the RT inhibition observed
could not be attributed entirely to the degradation of transcript
DNA, template RNA, or enzyme protein in the reaction mixture.
Thus, these results indicate that cultured blue-green algae
may represent a novel source of compounds that inhibit RT activity,
including that of HIV-1.
anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue-green
Romay C, Armesto J, Remirez D, Gonzalez R, Ledon N, Garcia I
Pharmacology Department, National Center for Scientific Research,
CNIC, Havana, Cuba. firstname.lastname@example.org
Phycocyanin is a pigment found in blue-green algae which contains
open chain tetrapyrroles with possible scavenging properties.
We have studied its antioxidant properties.
and Methods: Phycocyanin was evaluated as a putative antioxidant
in vitro by using: a) luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL)
generated by three different radical species (O2-, OH., RO.)
and by zymosan activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes
(PMNLs), b) deoxyribose assay and c) inhibition of liver microsomal
lipid peroxidation induced by Feascorbic acid. The antioxidant
activity was also assayed in vivo in glucose oxidase (GO)-induced
inflammation in mouse paw.
Results: The results
indicated that phycocyanin is able to scavenge OH. (IC50 = 0.91
mg/mL) and RO. (IC50 = 76 microg/mL) radicals, with activity
equivalent to 0.125 mg/mL of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and
0.038 microg/mL of trolox, specific scavengers of those radicals
respectively. In the deoxyribose assay the second-order rate
constant was 3.56 x 10(11) M(-1) S(-1), similar to that obtained
for some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Phycocyanin
also inhibits liver microsomal lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 12
mg/mL), the CL response of PMNLs (p < 0.05) as well as the
edema index in GO-induced inflammation in mouse paw (p <
Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the
first report of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties
Inflamm Res 1998 Jan;47(1):36-41
(PEA) is known as the "molecule of love."
Beside enhancing concentration and attention, PEA is a natural
mood elevator and anti-depressant. *Phycocyanin, is the
blue pigment in AFA, which is a natural selective COX-2 inhibitor
with strong anti-inflammatory properties. *AFA contains
a polysaccharide that stimulates the migration of immune cells
in the body; the only natural compound known to stimulate immune
cell migration. But the most extraordinary discovery is the
ability of AFA to stimulate stem cell release and migration,
making AFA the first natural compound know to stimulate the
natural innate phenomenon of healing, regeneration and repair
in the human body.
In a recent double-blind,
cross-over study at the Royal Victoria Hospital and led by Dr.
Gette Jenson, they discovered that Blue Green Algae uniquely
supports the healthy function of the immune system.
from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
Gustafson KR, Cardellina JH 2nd, Fuller RW, Weislow OS, Kiser
RF, Snader KM, Patterson GM, Boyd MR.
Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda,
A recently developed tetrazolium-based microculture assay was
used to screen extracts of cultured cyanobacteria (blue-green
algae) for inhibition of the cytopathic effects of the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), which is implicated as a causative
agent of AIDS. A number of extracts were found to be remarkably
active against the AIDS virus. A new class of HIV-1-inhibitory
compounds, the sulfonic acid-containing glycolipids, was discovered
through the use of the microculture assay to guide the fractionation
and purification process. The pure compounds were active against
HIV-1 in cultured human lymphoblastoid CEM, MT-2, LDV-7, and
C3-44 cell lines in the tetrazolium assay as well as in p24
viral protein and syncytium formation assays.
NOTE: These statements are not evaluated
by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration. These products,
and the information contained at this website, are not intended
to treat, cure or prevent any disease. Results may vary.